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Sam Loyd's Cyclopedia of 5,000 Puzzles Tricks & Conundrums with Answers



 
 
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  #1  
Old March 6th 07, 05:42 AM posted to alt.brain.teasers,rec.puzzles,rec.games.chess.misc,rec.games.chess.computer,rec.games.chess.analysis
samsloan
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 14,871
Default Sam Loyd's Cyclopedia of 5,000 Puzzles Tricks & Conundrums with Answers

INTRODUCTION

Sam Loyd (1841-1911) was the all time greatest inventor and developer
of puzzles. He is described by Martin Gardner, the author of the
"Mathematical Games" column in Scientific American, as "America's
greatest puzzlist and an authentic American genius". His fame is world
wide and books of his puzzles have been published in Russian and other
languages.

This book, Sam Loyd's Cyclopedia of 5,000 Puzzles Tricks & Conundrums
with Answers, was compiled by his son and published in 1914 after his
death. Although many books have been written about some of Loyd's
puzzles, this remains the most complete volume of all of his puzzles.

This is considered to be the most fabulous and exciting collection of
puzzles ever assembled in one volume. The puzzles come with wonderful
illustrations.

Sam Loyd is even more famous among chess masters. His chess problems
and compositions contain ideas that are studied by chess masters to
this day. According to Grandmaster Pal Benko, the great endgame
composer Troitzky used themes created by Sam Loyd. In 1987, Sam Loyd
was inducted into the US Chess Hall of Fame, the only chess player
ever so honored because of his chess compositions.

Bobby Fischer is a big fan of Sam Loyd Puzzles. I personally timed
Fischer with a stop watch at his request where he demonstrated that he
could solve the Sam Loyd 15-Puzzle every time in 25 seconds or less.
Fischer and I used to hang out together late nights in Midtown
Manhattan, where he would practice solving this puzzle. This was years
before Fischer won the World Chess Championship. Fischer later
demonstrated the ability to solve the 15-Puzzle on the Johnny Carson
Show.

The most famous chess composition by Sam Loyd is his demonstration
that it is possible to achieve stalemate in chess in only ten moves.
The moves are 1.e3 a5 2.Qh5 Ra6 3.Qxa5 h5 4.Qxc7 Rah6 5.h4 f6 6.Qxd7+
Kf7 7.Qxb7 Qd3 8.Qxb8 Qh7 9.Qxc8 Kg6 10.Qe6

XABCDEFGHY
8-+-+-vlntr(
7+-+-zp-zpq'
6-+-+Qzpktr&
5+-+-+-+p%
4-+-+-+-zP$
3+-+-zP-+-#
2PzPPzP-zPP+"
1tRNvL-mKLsNR!
xabcdefghy

Every now and then some wise guys who are conspiring to draw a game by
agreement play these moves in a serious tournament game. International
Master Bernard Zuckerman played this game against Larry Gilden in the
1962 Eastern Open Chess Championship in Washington DC, then the
biggest money tournament in America. Gilden was fortunate that
Zuckerman kept his promise to draw the game. The tournament was won by
Grandmaster Pal Benko.

Sam Loyd also demonstrated that stalemate in 12 moves can occur with
all the pieces still on the board. The moves are 1.d4 d6 2.Qd2 e5 3.a4
e4 4.Qf4 f5 5.h3 Be7 6.Qh2 Be6 7.Ra3 c5 8.Rg3 Qa5+ 9.Nd2 Bh4 10.f3 Bb3
11.d5 e3 12.c4 f4

XABCDEFGHY
8rsn-+k+ntr(
7zpp+-+-zpp'
6-+-zp-+-+&
5wq-zpP+-+-%
4P+P+-zp-vl$
3+l+-zpPtRP#
2-zP-sNP+PwQ"
1+-vL-mKLsNR!
xabcdefghy

The Sam Loyd 15-Puzzle has a caused a minor controversy recently. A
2006 book by Jerry Slocum claims that Sam Loyd did not really invent
the 15-Puzzle, which is Sam Loyd's most famous puzzle. In that book,
"The 15 Puzzle Book" by Jerry Slocum and Dic Sonneveld, ISBN
1890980153, the authors state: "The great puzzle master Sam Loyd
claimed to have invented the Fifteen Puzzle and that claim has stood
largely unchallenged for 115 years." They claim that the puzzle was
actually invented by Noyes Palmer Chapman, a postmaster in Canastota,
New York, possibly as early as 1874. However, the Chapman puzzle was
not really the same as the Loyd puzzle. This issue can be debated
forever, much like debating whether Newton really invented calculus.
In any event, it is clear that Loyd is the one who popularized the
puzzle by offering a prize of $1000 in a New York newspaper to any one
who could figure out a way to reverse the position of two adjacent
blocks in the puzzle. Loyd had already worked out mathematically that
the solution is impossible. The 15-puzzle problem caused a world-wide
frenzy in 1880; and made it The Greatest Puzzle of All Time.

Samuel Loyd was born in Philadelphia on January 31, 1841 and was
raised in Brooklyn, New York. His first puzzle was published in a New
York newspaper at the age of 14. From shortly thereafter until his
death in 1911, he was America's undisputed puzzle king. His father, a
real estate operator, moved the family from Philadelphia to New York
in 1844, where Loyd attended public school until he was 17. He became
obsessed with the game of chess at age 10 and as a youth frequented a
chess club where his interest in making puzzles developed. His first
problem was published by a New York paper when he was 14, and during
the next five years his output of chess puzzles was so prolific that
he was known throughout the chess world. By 1858, he was hailed as the
leading American writer of chess problems. In 1877 and 1878, Loyd
wrote a weekly chess page for Scientific American Supplement and these
columns comprised most of the book Chess Strategy, printed in 1978,
and containing 500 chess problems.

When Loyd was only 17, he invented his Trick Mules or Donkey Puzzle
which is deceptively difficult. The object is to cut apart the three
pieces and then reassemble them so that the two jockeys are riding the
mules. The puzzle was sold by Loyd to the American showman Phineas T.
Barnum (of Barnum & Bailey Circus fame). Loyd earned some $10,000 from
the puzzle.

On April 10, 1911, Sam Loyd he died in his home on 153 Halsey Street
near the corner of Marcy Avenue in Brooklyn, New York. His obituary in
the New York Times reported that he had been educated as a civil
engineer and held a steam and mechanical engineers license in New York
City, that he was a one time editor of "The Sanitary Engineer", and
that he was also a successful stock market operator, but that he never
bought stocks on margin.

After his death, his son took over the puzzle business. The original
name of his son was Walter but he started calling himself Sam Loyd and
named his own son Sam Loyd Junior. The son operated a puzzle shop on
Fulton Avenue in Brooklyn until his death in 1934.

This explains a paradox in this book, because it says that a prize can
be won by sending solutions to puzzles in this book to Sam Loyd before
January 31, 1915. Since Sam Loyd had died in 1911 and this book was
published in 1914, one wonders how it was possible to send him the
solutions. The answer is that the son was now calling himself Sam
Loyd.

A further conundrum is that in order to claim the prize one needs to
solve a number of puzzles, including the 14-15 puzzle which is found
on page 235 of this book. However, as we now know, this puzzle has no
solution.

Another problem is that in addition to sending in the solutions prior
to January 31, 1915 one must also send them in after December 1, 1915.
This one is a real head scratcher. The answer seems to be that this is
a typo, but one can never be sure.

According to the New York Times, "The Donkey Puzzle" sold more than
one million copies. Other successful puzzles were the "Fifteen-Block",
page 235, "Pigs in Clover", "Parchesi" and "Get off the Earth", page
323. Other popular problems were "Back from the Klondike", page 106,
and "How Old is Mary", page 53.

Sam Loyd did not claim to have invented all the puzzles in this book.
Some he simply improved. Others he credited to others. An example is
the "Towers of Hanoi" puzzle on page 223. This puzzle is still sold in
every children's toy store. The inventor originally named it the
"Tower of Brahma" or Bramah, said to be in India. Sam Loyd changed the
name and moved it to Hanoi, and made it more popular.

This book is filled with wonderful illustrations. The name of the
artist is not provided. It is possible that Sam Loyd himself drew the
pictures.

Sam Sloan

ISBN 0-923891-78-1

  #2  
Old March 6th 07, 11:56 AM posted to alt.brain.teasers,rec.puzzles,rec.games.chess.misc,rec.games.chess.computer,rec.games.chess.analysis
samsloan
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 14,871
Default Sam Loyd's Cyclopedia of 5,000 Puzzles Tricks & Conundrums with Answers

INTRODUCTION

Sam Loyd (1841-1911) was the all time greatest inventor and developer
of puzzles. He is described by Martin Gardner, the author of the
"Mathematical Games" column in Scientific American, as "America's
greatest puzzlist and an authentic American genius". His fame is world
wide and books of his puzzles have been published in Russian and other
languages.

This book, Sam Loyd's Cyclopedia of 5,000 Puzzles Tricks & Conundrums
with Answers, was compiled by his son and published in 1914 after his
death. Although many books have been written about some of Loyd's
puzzles, this remains the most complete volume of all of his puzzles.

This is considered to be the most fabulous and exciting collection of
puzzles ever assembled in one volume. The puzzles come with wonderful
illustrations.

Sam Loyd is even more famous among chess masters. His chess problems
and compositions contain ideas that are studied by chess masters to
this day. According to Grandmaster Pal Benko, the great endgame
composer Troitzky used themes created by Sam Loyd. In 1987, Sam Loyd
was inducted into the US Chess Hall of Fame, the only chess player
ever so honored because of his chess compositions.

Bobby Fischer is a big fan of Sam Loyd Puzzles. I personally timed
Fischer with a stop watch at his request where he demonstrated that he
could solve the Sam Loyd 15-Puzzle every time in 25 seconds or less.
Fischer and I used to hang out together late nights in Midtown
Manhattan, where he would practice solving this puzzle. This was years
before Fischer won the World Chess Championship. Fischer later
demonstrated the ability to solve the 15-Puzzle on the Johnny Carson
Show.

The most famous chess composition by Sam Loyd is his demonstration
that it is possible to achieve stalemate in chess in only ten moves.
The moves are 1.e3 a5 2.Qh5 Ra6 3.Qxa5 h5 4.Qxc7 Rah6 5.h4 f6 6.Qxd7+
Kf7 7.Qxb7 Qd3 8.Qxb8 Qh7 9.Qxc8 Kg6 10.Qe6

XABCDEFGHY
8-+-+-vlntr(
7+-+-zp-zpq'
6-+-+Qzpktr&
5+-+-+-+p%
4-+-+-+-zP$
3+-+-zP-+-#
2PzPPzP-zPP+"
1tRNvL-mKLsNR!
xabcdefghy

Every now and then some wise guys who are conspiring to draw a game by
agreement play these moves in a serious tournament game. International
Master Bernard Zuckerman played this game against Larry Gilden in the
1962 Eastern Open Chess Championship in Washington DC, then the
biggest money tournament in America. Gilden was fortunate that
Zuckerman kept his promise to draw the game. The tournament was won by
Grandmaster Pal Benko.

Sam Loyd also demonstrated that stalemate in 12 moves can occur with
all the pieces still on the board. The moves are 1.d4 d6 2.Qd2 e5 3.a4
e4 4.Qf4 f5 5.h3 Be7 6.Qh2 Be6 7.Ra3 c5 8.Rg3 Qa5+ 9.Nd2 Bh4 10.f3 Bb3
11.d5 e3 12.c4 f4

XABCDEFGHY
8rsn-+k+ntr(
7zpp+-+-zpp'
6-+-zp-+-+&
5wq-zpP+-+-%
4P+P+-zp-vl$
3+l+-zpPtRP#
2-zP-sNP+PwQ"
1+-vL-mKLsNR!
xabcdefghy

The Sam Loyd 15-Puzzle has a caused a minor controversy recently. A
2006 book by Jerry Slocum claims that Sam Loyd did not really invent
the 15-Puzzle, which is Sam Loyd's most famous puzzle. In that book,
"The 15 Puzzle Book" by Jerry Slocum and Dic Sonneveld, ISBN
1890980153, the authors state: "The great puzzle master Sam Loyd
claimed to have invented the Fifteen Puzzle and that claim has stood
largely unchallenged for 115 years." They claim that the puzzle was
actually invented by Noyes Palmer Chapman, a postmaster in Canastota,
New York, possibly as early as 1874. However, the Chapman puzzle was
not really the same as the Loyd puzzle. This issue can be debated
forever, much like debating whether Newton really invented calculus.
In any event, it is clear that Loyd is the one who popularized the
puzzle by offering a prize of $1000 in a New York newspaper to any one
who could figure out a way to reverse the position of two adjacent
blocks in the puzzle. Loyd had already worked out mathematically that
the solution is impossible. The 15-puzzle problem caused a world-wide
frenzy in 1880; and made it The Greatest Puzzle of All Time.

Samuel Loyd was born in Philadelphia on January 31, 1841 and was
raised in Brooklyn, New York. His first puzzle was published in a New
York newspaper at the age of 14. From shortly thereafter until his
death in 1911, he was America's undisputed puzzle king. His father, a
real estate operator, moved the family from Philadelphia to New York
in 1844, where Loyd attended public school until he was 17. He became
obsessed with the game of chess at age 10 and as a youth frequented a
chess club where his interest in making puzzles developed. His first
problem was published by a New York paper when he was 14, and during
the next five years his output of chess puzzles was so prolific that
he was known throughout the chess world. By 1858, he was hailed as the
leading American writer of chess problems. In 1877 and 1878, Loyd
wrote a weekly chess page for Scientific American Supplement and these
columns comprised most of the book Chess Strategy, printed in 1978,
containing 500 chess problems.

When Loyd was only 17, he invented his Trick Mules or Donkey Puzzle
which is deceptively difficult. The object is to cut apart the three
pieces and then reassemble them so that the two jockeys are riding the
mules. The puzzle was sold by Loyd to the American showman Phineas T.
Barnum (of Barnum & Bailey Circus fame). Loyd earned some $10,000 from
the puzzle.

On April 10, 1911, Sam Loyd he died in his home on 153 Halsey Street
near the corner of Marcy Avenue in Brooklyn, New York. His obituary in
the New York Times reported that he had been educated as a civil
engineer and held a steam and mechanical engineers license in New York
City, that he was a one time editor of "The Sanitary Engineer", and
that he was also a successful stock market operator, but that he never
bought stocks on margin.

After his death, his son took over the puzzle business. The original
name of his son was Walter but he started calling himself Sam Loyd and
named his own son Sam Loyd Junior. The son operated a puzzle shop at
246 Fulton Street in Downtown Brooklyn until his death at age 60 in
1934.

This explains a paradox in this book, because it says that a prize can
be won by sending solutions to puzzles in this book to Sam Loyd before
January 31, 1915. Since Sam Loyd had died in 1911 and this book was
published in 1914, one wonders how it was possible to send him the
solutions. The answer is that the son was now calling himself Sam
Loyd.

A further conundrum is that in order to claim the prize one needs to
solve a number of puzzles, including the 14-15 puzzle which is found
on page 235 of this book. However, as we now know, this puzzle has no
solution.

Another problem is that in addition to sending in the solutions prior
to January 31, 1915 one must also send them in after December 1, 1915.
This one is a real head scratcher. The answer seems to be that this is
a typo, but one can never be sure.

According to the New York Times, "The Donkey Puzzle" sold more than
one million copies. Other successful puzzles were the "Fifteen-Block",
page 235, "Pigs in Clover", "Parchesi" and "Get off the Earth", page
323. Other popular problems were "Back from the Klondike", page 106,
and "How Old is Mary", page 53.

Sam Loyd did not claim to have invented all the puzzles in this book.
Some he simply improved. Others he credited to others. An example is
the "Towers of Hanoi" puzzle on page 223. This puzzle is still sold in
every children's toy store. The inventor originally named it the
"Tower of Brahma" or Bramah, said to be in India. Sam Loyd changed the
name and moved it to Hanoi, and made it more popular.

This book is filled with wonderful illustrations. The name of the
artist is not provided. It is possible that Sam Loyd himself drew the
pictures.

Sam Sloan

ISBN 0-923891-78-1

 




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