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Old December 19th 06, 02:06 PM posted to rec.games.chess.misc,rec.games.chess.computer
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Default Turing's other contribution

It is less known about Turing that he amplified his work into biology and
especially to gene studies, and wrote a paper

ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Turing.html

The Chemical basis of morphogenisis, which generated much study after the
second world war, and has recently achieved more interest in several
scientific sectors, since it investigates pattern. It should be noted that
the terms in use in these papers are not that of technology, but of
philosophy, specifically the philosophy of science.

A paper, Cluster analysis and data visualisation of large scale
gene-expression data presented in 1998 at the Pacific symposium of
bio-computing is perhaps the best exposition of a continuation of Turing's
idea.

In other scientific realms we find the same paper by Turing being applied
otherwise:-

Proposed name for aperiodic brain activity: Stochastic chaos - group of 10
WJ Freeman - Neural Networks, 2000 - gaianxaos.com
.... Biologist 40: 89-94. Turing AM (1952) The chemical basis of
morphogenesis.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 237B: 37-72. ...

and also here

A numerical approach to the study of spatial pattern formation - group of
2
A Madzvamuse - 2000 - citeseer.ist.psu.edu
.... Sekimura.. (Correct) Related documents from co-citation: More All 10:
The chemical
basis of morphogenesis (context) - Turing - 1952 9: A Theory of Biological
....

The field of Morphogenisis has been heavily pursued by Rupert Sheldrake, a
sample project is:-

DOC] A Quantum Explanation of Sheldrake's Morphic Resonance - group of 2
A Goswami - stealthskater.com
.... This is the explanation of why certain forms repeat over-and-over in
morphogenesis.
In a sense, this is a kind of memory as proposed by Sheldrake. ...

---
The interesting aspect of both Turing and Sheldrake is their their work was
by no means well-received at the time, and Turing in particular was
'challenging' to encounter, since he strongly addressed the philosophic
underpinings of received understanding - Sheldrake is no less so - but
interestingly in his case his route was the disciplinary inverse of
Turing's, going from biology to physics.

Neither of these gents sought approval from others as much as pioneers
cannot expect to do so, and instead have sought investigation by others.
Turing could be somewhat terse with those who would not proceed from the
Idea, that is, the philosophy of things, and were content with technology,
that is, the deployment of science. The real worth of his obstinacy and huge
reservation to philosophical-less procedures can be assessed by the fact
that Turing's is STILL the leading Idea behind scientific development - even
unto biology.

The link in their work [Turing and Sheldrake] is pattern recognition, and
with Sheldrake in particular, observable mutations of which, or the
emergence of new patterns altogether [which is to honour the 'genisis' in
morphogenisis].

Sheldrake's work has certainly informed biology - though there are still
massive scientific arguments re Darwin, and what might be said to be a
bio-mechanistic view of the universe - but in physics Sheldrake's ideas are
seen to be testable and in fact admitted to be better explanation of what is
going on than what we explained heretofore.

---
As a general topic of AI, the particular mix of physics and biology seems to
be the optimum pairing to advance our understanding of complex and dynamic
patterns in nature - to the degree that bees and other insects are, for
example, studied at U. Sussex for their pattern behavior in order to inform
us of computing possibilities mapping /real-world dynamic/ systems - a term
completely distinct from emulations of the same.

Phil Innes




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