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Old May 5th 07, 09:59 PM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing

Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing

When the first edition of this book was published in 1992, DNA testing
was little more than a theoretical possibility. However, it happened
by coincidence that just a few days after my book was reprinted in
1998 the first DNA tests concerning the Jefferson-Hemings controversy
were completed and the results published: Eugene A. Foster et al.,
"Jefferson Fathered Slave's Last Child," Nature, November 5, 1998. The
results showed that Thomas Jefferson could not be excluded as the
father of the children of Sally Hemings.

DNA tests never by their nature prove who the father is. They simply
exclude or do not exclude a man as the father. However, with modern
testing, the result will typically be that the man is either NOT the
father, or else that he is 99.99% certain to be the father.

On the Maury Povich show on TV, Povich will boom out, "You are the
Father", when, in reality, the result of the test shows merely that
the man is 99.99% certain to be the father.

As soon as the article came out in Nature magazine, it was attacked so
vehemently that the authors of the article essentially went
underground. Still, to this day, the authors do not respond to
inquiries about it.

The attacks were led by Herbert Barger. At first I considered Herbert
Barger to be a bad guy. However, I have come to appreciate Mr. Berger,
especially after realizing that it was because of Herbert Barger that
the DNA testing had taken place in the first instance. Indeed, Mr.
Barger is continuing to search for more relatives of either Thomas
Jefferson or Sally Hemings to test. He is a seeker of the truth.

Mr. Barger had contacted a bunch of known direct male descendants of
Field Jefferson, the uncle of Thomas Jefferson, and descendants of
Dabney Carr, the brother-in-law of Thomas Jefferson. Judith P. Justus
had supplied the only known direct male descendant of Sally Hemings.
Minnie Shumate Woodson had supplied a number of direct descendants of
Thomas Woodson, whom she believed to be the son of Thomas Jefferson.
However, Minnie died before the testing took place. It is good that
she did, because the results would have killed her.

Herbert Barger believed that these tests would prove that Thomas
Jefferson was not the father of the children of Sally Hemings and that
one of the Carr Brothers was the real father. Minnie Shumate Woodson
believed that the tests would prove that Thomas Woodson was the slave
named "Tom" whom James Thomson Callendar had reported bore a "sable
likeness" to President Thomas Jefferson. The descendants of the Carr
Brothers had no real motive or point they were trying to prove. They
just agreed and went along with the tests. They probably would not
have been upset regardless of how the results turned out. After all:
Is it such a big deal to know or not to know whether one's great-great-
great-grandfather did or did not sleep with a black woman?

The tests results turned out to be considerably different from what
anyone but me had expected. The tests established that Thomas Woodson
was not the son of Thomas Jefferson. This eliminated the more than one
thousand direct descendants of Thomas Woodson from being descendants
of Thomas Jefferson.

The test results eliminated the children of Dabney Carr from being the
father of at least one son of Sally Hemings.

However, the test results could not exclude Thomas Jefferson from
being the father of at least one of the sons of Sally Hemings.

It is important to understand that there are now three recognized
types of DNA testing that are considered useful for genealogical
purposes. These are Y-Chromosome Testing, MtDna Testing and Autosomal
Testing. Of these three, only Y-chromosome testing is considered
useful with regard to the Jefferson-Hemings Controversy.

The reason for this is that the Y-chromosome is carried from father to
son. Women do not have a Y-chromosome. Thus, only men can be tested.
The Y-chromosome test can reveal who the fathers father's father's
father was up the straight male line. It will not tell us anything
about the mothers involved.

The MtDNA, or mitochondrial DNA, testing tests only the outer area or
the bag that carries the genetic material. It is passed by the mother
to all of her children. The reason this is not very useful for genetic
purposes is that MtDNA mutates slowly. If two women are an exact match
for MtDNA, this might tell us that two women share the same mother two
thousand years ago, but since all of us are related if you go back far
enough, this often does not tell us anything we did not know already.
It was through a MtDNA test that it was recently reported that all
Ashkenazi Jews are descended from one of four women. However, there is
no indication of how long ago these women lived or where they lived.
They might easily have lived three thousand years ago, which was
before the group now known as Ashkenazi Jews was even formed. Oprah
Winfrey claimed that an MtDNA test proved that she was a Zulu.
However, the Zulu tribe was not even formed until after most slaves
were imported from West Africa to the United States.

Autosomal DNA testing tests the genetic nucleus. All of us are a
mixture of genetic material, half from the mother, half from the
father. Autosomal DNA testing is useful for paternity tests because,
if the mother and child are tested and it can be shown that a line of
DNA code definitely did not come from the mother, then it must have
come from the father. So, by testing the mother, the child and all the
candidate men, it can be determined which of the many possible men was
the real father. This came up in the famous Anna Nicole Smith case,
where dozens of men claimed to be the father of her child in order to
gain control of a substantial inheritance.

However, Autosomal DNA testing will only tell us who the father was.
It will not tell us who the father's father was. For that, you would
need a test of the father's mother too and so on each generation back
up the line. This will usually prove impossible.

Since the grave of Sally Hemings has never been found, that
possibility, already remote, is eliminated.

Thus, only Y-chromosome testing is useful for genetic purposes. It
must be emphasized however that this is rapidly evolving science. No
doubt new tests will be developed and better answers to these
questions will be found.

I will use myself an example of how Y-chromosome testing can be
useful, especially since I am unlikely to sue myself and some people
are upset when the results of their DNA tests come back. For example,
blacks are often upset when they find out that their direct male line
ancestor was a white man, as is the case of 25% to 30% of African
Americans. One of the Woodson descendants is still upset when the
results came back showing that he was NOT the descendant of Thomas
Jefferson, and he has written a book claiming that the test results
were wrong.

In my own case, I knew almost nothing about my own genealogy until I
started to research it at the same time that I started writing this
book. I only knew the names of three of my grandparents. I knew that
the name of my grandfather was Howard Creighton Sloan only because of
an old stock certificate that had been sitting on top of the
refrigerator at home for 40 years with his name on it.

Eventually, I found out that his father had been Creighton Sloan
(1842-1916). Beyond that was a brick wall, because there is no record
of who the father of Creighton Sloan was or where Creighton Sloan was
born. Some sources say that he was born in Philadelphia, but his death
certificate says that he was "born at sea, Irish".

I was contacted by someone named Susan Sloan, who stated that she was
forming a Sloan Family Surname project. She asked me to join the
project and agree to be tested. I joined. The results are online at:

http://www.familytreedna.com/public/...xed_columns=on

I am number 13599. Here are the results of my 37-allele marker test.

13599 Sloan R1b1
13231410111512121213132918910111125151930131315171 11019231615181838391212

What this means is that I am a member of the R1b1 haplogroup. This is
the most common group for Ireland and England. It is also an old
group. Perhaps the first migrants to England after the decline of the
Ice Age 11,000 years ago were members of this group. There is a major
debate that is still going on. The Ice Age lasted in Europe from about
30,000 years ago to about 11,000 years ago. It is assumed that during
this period humans could not survive in Europe except in the Southern-
most parts such as the bottoms of Spain and Italy. During the Ice Age,
the sea levels were far lower, because so much of the water was ice.
England and Ireland were connected to Continental Europe by a land
bridge. It is believed that during the last stages of the Ice Age,
humans crossed from Continental Europe to England and Ireland, before
the land bridge was submerged. These early migrants were likely
members of the R1b1 haplogroup.

Humans lived in Europe before the Ice Age. These were the Neanderthal
Men. They died out, perhaps because of the Ice Age or perhaps because
they were killed off by the first modern men who arrived there at that
time.

However, it is possible that this is all wrong. Perhaps modern men did
live as far north as England and Ireland before or even during the Ice
Age. Research is being done of this subject.

There was a recent published report on hair color. Everywhere in the
world, the color of hair is black, except in Northern Europe, where
hair exists in a wide variety of colors, including blond, red, light
brown and many other shades in between. Why is that? The theory is
that during the Ice Age, women could not survive alone. There were no
crops to harvest. No berries, fruits or nuts. The food was animals,
which they needed to catch. For this, they needed men. A woman with
beautiful, blond hair would attract a man from a long distance. He
would bring her the game he had caught to eat. He would bring her
food, and she would give him sex. Thus, her genes would be passed on
to the next generation.

Meanwhile, a nearby black-haired woman might not attract attention and
interest of men and therefore she might die of starvation. Anyway,
that is the theory. The basis of this theory is that the wide
varieties of hair color are known to have developed in just the last
10,000 years in Northern Europe. The wide varieties of hair color
could not have developed that quickly through the normal
differentiation of the species, so there must have been other factors
at work.

There is something slightly unusual in my own DNA profile. That is the
second digit, 23, which represents the 390 allele. Almost all other
Sloans in my group have 24 at that marker. In addition, most other
Sloans differ from me on the 6th marker as well. I have 15. Most
others have 14. This is for 385b.

However, there is one other Sloan who has almost exactly the same
generic profile as me. I did research and found that his name is
Ronald Scott Sloan. He is number 39388. He is presently number 18 on
the list. He died recently.

I researched his genealogy and found that he is a descendant of
William Sloan, who was born in 1780 in Philadelphia. William Sloan was
married twice and had ten children, eight sons and two daughters. The
most famous of his sons was Samuel Sloan (1815-1884), known as "The
Architect of Philadelphia" and author of the book "The Model
Architect", which I am reprinting. I have long suspected that I am a
relative of that Samuel Sloan, because he had a son named Howard Sloan
and my name is Samuel Howard Sloan and he had a brother named Wesley
Sloan and my brother is named Creighton Wesley Sloan.

What we have is a similarity of names, the fact that all of these
people lived in Philadelphia and a near-perfect DNA match. This leads
me to the conclusion that one of the seven other sons of the William
Sloan who was born in Philadelphia in 1780 could be my great-great
grandfather. However, this is not proof.

It is entirely possible that the common ancestor between myself and
Ronald Scott Sloan lived several generations before that. What is
considered to be practically proven is that Ronald Scott Sloan and
myself share a common ancestor. We just do not know who that common
ancestor was.

It is believed that if two men with the same surname are a perfect DNA
match, then they have a common ancestor within probably seven
generations. However, note that Ronald Scott Sloan and myself are a
close match, but not a perfect match.

A new Sloan has joined the group. He is number 85539. He is a perfect
match with me except on allele 385b. His name is Donald K. Sloan and
he writes, "I can tell you that my grandfather, Mathew immigrated from
Ireland. I know nothing before him."

My DNA results are not that useful because I have the most common gene
type for European men, which is R1b1c. There are millions of men who
match me perfectly or nearly perfectly. Family Tree DNA has provided
me with a list of 67 men who match me perfectly on the 12 allele
marker test.

http://www.familytreedna.com/trs_ftM...599&code=H3135

Thomas Jefferson is an entirely different matter, because NOBODY
MATCHES WITH HIM, other than his immediate family.

The initial 1998 report in Nature magazine described Thomas
Jefferson's DNA type as "rare". This was a considerable
understatement. His DNA type was not merely rare. It was unique.

Thomas Jefferson was assigned his own new Haplogroup, which is K2. I
know what you are thinking. You are thinking about something between
Space Invaders and the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. However, Thomas
Jefferson does not seem to have been a space invader. He was
definitely something different, however.

You have seen how in my own case, there are 67 men out of those tested
who match me perfectly on the 12 allele test. Almost all of these men
are from England or Northern Ireland.

However, in the case of Thomas Jefferson, no man has yet been found
who matches him on more than 6 alleles of a short 8 allele test. Few
even match him on more than five.

Thus, the improbable possibility that he was a space invader does seem
to loom a bit larger. However, he was probably not a space invader. He
was just a mutant.

Thomas Jefferson had red hair. As has just been explained, the current
theory is that red and blond hair developed in Northern Europe to make
women more beautiful and to attract more men. Every woman wants to
attract more men, whether they are willing to admit it or not. That is
a genetically driven, survival instinct. However, it is not really
relevant here because Thomas Jefferson's membership in the K2
Haplogroup merely shows that his father's father's father's father was
K2. The red hair, on the other hand, comes from a combination of all
his ancestors.

Sam Sloan

http://www.amazon.com/dp/1881373029/

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Old May 6th 07, 03:43 AM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing


"samsloan" wrote in message
ups.com...
Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing


1) who cares.

2) if tom was pimping out sally he looks even worse


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Old May 6th 07, 04:11 PM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing

On May 5, 10:43 pm, "Ray O'Hara" wrote:
"samsloan" wrote in message

ups.com...

Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing


1) who cares.

2) if tom was pimping out sally he looks even worse


In spite of your poor use of language, your posting has a valid point.

Defenders of Thomas Jefferson now say that Sally and Tommy were not
sweethearts and that it was Randy, Tommy's brother, who came by to
visit on rare occasions and who got Sally pregnant all those times.

Since it has been proven and established that Tommy was around every
time that Sally got pregnant whereas she never got pregnant when he
was not around such as the years when he was serving as Secretary of
State in Philadelphia before Washington DC became the capital, this,
if true, would mean that every time Tommy came back to Monticello, he
would call over his wayward and wandering brother Randy and have him
come by and have sex with Sally,

One wonders why the defenders of Thomas Jefferson believe that this
scenario makes Tommy look better than sleeping with Sally himself.

Sam Sloan

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Old May 6th 07, 05:01 PM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing


"samsloan" wrote in message
oups.com...
On May 5, 10:43 pm, "Ray O'Hara" wrote:
"samsloan" wrote in message

ups.com...

Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing


1) who cares.

2) if tom was pimping out sally he looks even worse


In spite of your poor use of language, your posting has a valid point.

Defenders of Thomas Jefferson now say that Sally and Tommy were not
sweethearts and that it was Randy, Tommy's brother, who came by to
visit on rare occasions and who got Sally pregnant all those times.

Since it has been proven and established that Tommy was around every
time that Sally got pregnant whereas she never got pregnant when he
was not around such as the years when he was serving as Secretary of
State in Philadelphia before Washington DC became the capital, this,
if true, would mean that every time Tommy came back to Monticello, he
would call over his wayward and wandering brother Randy and have him
come by and have sex with Sally,

One wonders why the defenders of Thomas Jefferson believe that this
scenario makes Tommy look better than sleeping with Sally himself.

Sam Sloan



you come here with you purient posts about tom and sally.
it doesn't matter if they did or didn't. its just perversion on the part of
you and others who keep making it an issue.


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Old May 6th 07, 10:02 PM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing

"Ray O'Hara" wrote in message
...

"samsloan" wrote in message
ups.com...
Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing


1) who cares.



Sam Sloan (who is trying to pimp his book) cares.


2) if tom was pimping out sally he looks even worse






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Old May 6th 07, 10:13 PM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing

At 03:33 PM 5/6/2007 -0400, John Chandler wrote:

Anyone who publishes a paper in Nature under a title written with the
form, style, and intent of a tabloid headline, as Foster et al. did,
deserves to be censured. What's more, they published results showing
an NPE, including a schematic family tree sufficient to identify those
affected, but, according to what I've heard, without providing any
notice to the test subjects. Would you trust these guys to run a DNA
surname project??


I am glad you brought up this last point because I was trying to think
of an excuse to mention it.

The Non-Parental Event or, in other words, Grandma forgot to tell us
something, showed that one of the supposed descendants of Thomas
Woodson and therefore of Thomas Jefferson was in reality not a
descendant of either of them.

The chart shows that Woodson Descendant W70 has Y-chromosome DNA
typical of Sub-Saharan Africa. He is
111001 17 12 6 11 3 11 8 10 11 14 6 (0?)1.(3a)3.(1a)11.
(3a)30a(4a)14.(4)2

However, his cousin, W69, has DNA typical of the other Woodson
descendants.

0000011 14 12 5 11 3 10 11 13 13 13 7 (1)16.(3)27.(4)21

So, it seems that the grandmother of W70 slept with a man other than
her husband.

What makes this even more noteworthy is that one of the Woodson
participants in this project wrote a book claiming that the test
results proved that he is the descendant of Thomas Jefferson, when, in
reality, the results proved the opposite. That was Byron Woodson. His
book is "A President in the Family: Thomas Jefferson, Sally Hemings,
and Thomas Woodson by Byron W. Woodson Sr. (Hardcover - Feb 28,
2001)" ISBN-10: 0275971740

Naturally, I want to find out whether Byron Woodson is number W70.

Assuming that the chart is accurate, he is not that person, because he
says that he is descended from the eldest son of Lewis Woodson and W70
is descended from a younger son.

Sam Sloan

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Old May 6th 07, 10:17 PM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing

On May 6, 5:02 pm, "Chess Freak" wrote:
"Ray O'Hara" wrote in message

...



"samsloan" wrote in message
oups.com...
Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing


1) who cares.


Sam Sloan (who is trying to pimp his book) cares.


Not quite true. I am in the process of coming out a third edition. I
am posting my drafts here hoping that my loyal followers including you
will point out any typographical errors, misspellings or other
weaknesses.

After you have helped me by pointing out any corrections that need to
be made, I will publish it in the book.

Sam Sloan

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Old May 6th 07, 11:47 PM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing

At 08:39 AM 5/6/2007 -0700, Marleen Van Horne wrote:
Sam,

One more thing, then I will leave you alone.

Most of us who manage yDNA projects would not be satisfied with a yDNA
test with so few markers. In my projects I ask people to have the 67
marker test, but do settle for the 37 marker test. Anything less than
37 markers is too inconclusive to confirm matches or non-matches.

Depending on how common the haplogroup is, you get too many matches for
an ancestor who lived possibly 30,000 years ago. In this case, K2 is
extremely rare, but I still would not be very satisfied until I has at
least 37mankers and preferably 67 markers for comparison.

There is also the consideration that we really do not know much about
mutation rates. Dr. Thomas Krahn of FTDNA has stated that specific
markers mutate at different rates in different haplogroups. It is also
entirely possible that in the clades of a haplogroup, specific markers
mutate at different rates. This is all too new, and we just do not know
enough, yet.

Marleen



You are not bothering me at all. Every time I hear from you I learn
something or I get a new idea.

The 8-marker DNA test given to the Jefferson, Hemings, Carr and
Woodson descendants was extremely limited by present-day standards. I
wonder why they have not redone the tests and brought them up to date.

Actually, I suspect that Mark Jobling has redone the tests. He just
does not want to publish the results and get himself into even more
trouble.

Anyway, for the purpose intended, there is no doubt that that the
tests actually done were sufficient. It is clear that the one Hemings
descendant is a perfect match for all five of the Field Jefferson
descendants and that none of the other persons match.

A 37 or 67 allele test is not likely to change this result.

A better test would address the question of the origin of Thomas
Jefferson. Very little is known about his father, Peter Jefferson. A
lot is known about his mother, Jane Randolph, as she was a member of a
famous family, but the background of his father is really unknown.

Rumors have circulated for many years that Peter Jefferson was Native
American or Black. The book, "The Five Negro Presidents" lists Thomas
Jefferson as black for that reason.

There is no record, or at least none that I have been able to find, of
anybody named Jefferson arriving in the New World by boat. He or one
of his ancestors probably changed his name.

Sam Sloan

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Old May 11th 07, 06:16 PM posted to soc.history.war.us-revolution,alt.history,soc.history,alt.history.colonial,rec.games.chess.politics
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Default Update on Jefferson-Hemings DNA Testing

Here are some pictures of interest in the Jefferson Hemings
controversy.

Amelia Perry Pride

Amelia Perry Pride was a prominent person in Lynchburg Virginia around
the turn of the century. She was the principal of the school for
colored. Her family states that it was a family secret that she was
the great grand-daughter of Thomas Jefferson. They do not state that
she was a descendant of Sally Hemings, however. They did not know
about her. This leaves open the possibility that there were other
mistresses besides Sally.

Fawn Brodie

Fawn Brodie (September 15, 1915 - January 10, 1981) was a professor of
history at UCLA who was the author of the book, "Thomas Jefferson An
Intimate History". This book rekindled the long-held theory or belief
that Thomas Jefferson had fathered children by his slaves. The book by
Fawn Brodie was a valuable contribution, but it had weaknesses too,
because of often trying to psycho-analyze Thomas Jefferson on the
basis of unverifiable speculations.

Sadly, Fawn Brodie died shortly after her book was published, so she
is not around to defend her speculations.

Barbara Chase Ribaud

The book by Barbara Chase Ribaud entitled "Sally Hemings" can be
described in one word: "Trash". In her defense, she says that it was a
historical novel and was not intended to be factual. However, many
readers believed that it was factual and were misled. Barbara Chase
Ribaud later became even more famous when she sued Stephen Spielberg
for his movie Amistad, which she claimed was plagiarized from one of
her books. However, her case was obviously without merit because
Amistad was based on a published decision of the United States Supreme
Court in 1841. 40 U.S. (15 Pet.) 518 (1841). Barbara Chase Ribaud was
later accused of violating the copyright of another author.

I, for one, wish that Barbara Chase-Ribaud had violated somebody's
copyright when she wrote the book "Sally Hemming". At least that way
she would have avoided the horrific factual errors her book contains.
Her errors would not have been made by even your average tenth-grader
in high school. This is because Barbara Chase Ribaud never went to
high school in the United States. She is from the Bahamas. It is
obvious that Barbara Chase Ribaud only read one book before writing
her own book. That was the book by Fawn Brodie. Had Fawn Brodie lived,
perhaps she would have sued Barbara Chase Ribaud for violating her
copyright.

Before Barbara Chase Ribaud writes any more history books, I believe
that she should take one of those adult education courses in American
history and try to get her GED. She should not be writing books on a
subject she knows nothing about.

Annette Gordon-Reed

More than any other book, it was the book "Thomas Jefferson and Sally
Hemings: An American Controversy" by Annette Gordon-Reed that brought
about the movement to have DNA tests done to establish the paternity
of the children of Sally Hemings.

Herbert Barger with his wife

As first I considered Herbert Barger to be an annoyance. However, I
have come to respect Herbert Barger. He has been working on this case
for more than twenty years. He knows it better than anybody (except
for me of course). He has all the facts. He just reaches the wrong
conclusions. Nobody's perfect.

Herbert Barger keeps trying to find somebody else to blame for Sally's
children, so as to exonerate Thomas Jefferson. What nobody can figure
out is how does it make it any better if Herbert Barger can show that
Thomas Jefferson's bother or father might have been to blame, rather
than Thomas Jefferson himself.

Byron Woodson

Byron Woodson, son of Minnie Shumate Woodson. A very funny guy. He
writes a book stating that the DNA tests proved that Thomas Jefferson
was his great-great-great-great-great-grandfather, when in reality the
DNA tests proved exactly the opposite. He is author of "A President in
the Family Thomas Jefferson, Sally Hemings, and Thomas Woodson" by
Byron W. Woodson ISBN: 0-275-97174-0. He claims to have a MBA. At
least one must admit that he looks like Thomas Jefferson. What do you
think?

Thomas Jefferson's Bed Chamber

Here is Exhibit A. Take a look at the three portholes at the top. What
are they for? There is a concealed room up there. Take a look at the
doorway to the far right. That leads to a closet and there was a
ladder there. The ladder led to the room you cannot see, with the
three portholes.

I believe that the concealed room was the orgy room where Sally and
Tommy made passionate love. If he heard a noise, Tommy could stand up
and look through one of the three portholes to see what was going on,
or he could remain hidden.

It is difficult to imagine what other purpose the concealed room could
have. Monticello was so carefully designed that every inch and every
feature had a purpose. What was the purpose of this large closet
directly above his bed?

Sarah and Hagar

This painting by Adriaen van der Werff that hangs in the Louvre was
greatly admired by Thomas Jefferson. It depicts Genesis 16:2 where
Sarah gives her slave girl Hagar to Abraham to sleep with. Sarah gave
Abraham a guilt free pass. Of course, this painting is not realistic.
Abraham lived out in the desert and tended his flocks. He did not
enjoy this opulence. Fawn Brodie interpreted Thomas Jefferson's
admiration of this painting as meaning that Thomas Jefferson wanted to
have two wives. According to Brodie, this explains Jefferson's
subsequent affair with Sally Hemings. Brodie also states that the Van
der Werff painting has portholes similar to the portholes in his
bedroom at Monticello. However, I cannot see the portholes here.

Thomas Jefferson's Copy Machine

This machine enabled Thomas Jefferson to make a copy of every letter
he wrote. Because of this machine, we now have thousands of letters
written by Thomas Jefferson that otherwise would have been lost. John
Adams had a different method. He simply had his wife, Abigail, copy
all his letters.

The Nickel

The most famous and widely distributed picture of Thomas Jefferson and
Monticello, the nickel.

Isaac Jefferson

This is the only photographs of a slave of Thomas Jefferson. Isaac
wrote his memoirs which were published and which are a valuable source
of information about Life at Monticello.

Maria Cosway

Maria Cosway was a lady friend of Thomas Jefferson while he was in
France. They exchanged passionate love letters. The letters certainly
make it seem like they were having an affair. She would get angry when
he did not write her often. The controversy concerns whether they
actually slept together or not. Her foppish husband was a renowned
artist and was probably gay. Both she and her husband were famous
painters and they painted these picture of her.

Another portrait of Maria Cosway. Does she look "too religious to
commit adultery", as Fawn Brodie claimed?

Here is a painting of Maria Cosway and her husband, Richard.

Dr. Eugene Foster and his wife

Dr. Foster took the DNA samples and was the primary author of the
report published in Nature "Jefferson Fathered Slaves Last Child".
However, because of the flack he endured because of that report, he
does not respond to inquiries about it. I am fairly certain that Dr.
Foster knew my mother, Dr. Marjorie Sloan.

John Weeks Jefferson

John Weeks Jefferson is a direct descendant of Sally Hemings through
her youngest son Eston. DNA tests show that he is a perfect DNA match
with five different descendants of Field Jefferson, the uncle of
Thomas Jefferson. This proves that either Thomas Jefferson or one of
his immediate relatives was the father of Sally's youngest child.

Robert H. Cooley III

Robert H. Cooley III was a lawyer in Petersburg Virginia who believed
himself to be a descendant of Thomas Jefferson through Tom Woodson.
However, he could not be DNA tested because he is not in a straight
male line and thus his Y-chromosome would be irrelevant. Prior to his
death, Robert Cooley fought to be buried in the Jefferson Family
Cemetery at Monticello. This request was denied. After his death in
1998, the DNA tests of his relatives proved that he was not a
descendant of Thomas Jefferson.

Prof. Mark Jobling

Professor Mark Jobling is the geneticist in England who actually
analyzed the DNA collected by Dr. Foster and came to the conclusions
reported in the article in Nature. Geneticist Mark Jobling is a
professor at the University of Leicester. Here he looks at a picture
of Thomas Jefferson while studying the DNA of his relatives.

Martha Jefferson

Here are portraits of Martha Jefferson, daughter of Thomas Jefferson
through his wife Martha Wayles, in her youth at age 17 and when she
was older.

Thomas Jefferson had an odd practice. When his mother, his wife and
his second daughter, Maria, died, he destroyed all their letters and
their portraits. They were wealthy women and well educated and there
can be little doubt that they sat for portraits and wrote and received
many letters. Yet, none survive.

Martha Jefferson's portraits have survived because she outlived Thomas
Jefferson and therefore he was not there to destroy them when she
died.

Andrew McMichael

Andrew McMichael is a professor of history who often debated the issue
of Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson with me over the Internet, until
I finally figured out that he knows more about the subject than I do.
He often stated that he did not disagree with my conclusions. He just
disagreed with my methodology in reaching those conclusions. At that
time, he was at Princeton University, which now is the leading
repository and has almost all of the original papers of Thomas
Jefferson. Andrew Mc Michael now is a professor at Western Kentucky
University.

Merrill Peterson

Merrill Peterson wrote an acclaimed biography of Thomas Jefferson
while at Princeton University. Like most biographers, he mentioned but
brushed aside the well known allegation that Thomas Jefferson fathered
children by his slaves.

Chess Set attributed to Thomas Jefferson

This is said to be Thomas Jefferson's chess set. However, I am not
certain that it is really a chess set, as several of the pieces seem
to be missing.

Drawing of Thomas Jefferson attributed to Benjamin Latrobe. Please
note the similarity to the drawings of Amelia Perry.

Putative Descendants of Thomas Jefferson through Sally Hemings

This picture shows a group of persons standing in front of Monticello
who believe themselves to be descendants of Thomas Jefferson, either
by his wife Martha Wayles or by Sally Hemings. The man standing at the
far right is John Weeks Jefferson, a descendant of Eston Hemings
Jefferson. In the center, standing, is the Truscott Family, who are
descended from his legitimate daughter Martha. Crouching down in the
center is Shannon Lanier, a descendant of Madison Hemings.

Sam Sloan

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Old May 11th 07, 09:00 PM posted to rec.games.chess.politics,rec.games.chess.misc
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Default Where is Waldo... er, Sam Sloan?


Is Sam in Nashville? Where is he?

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